Below is glossary of common terms used within our research studies:

Accelerometer – A device the body’s movement and intensity when undergoing activity.

Accessibility – The ease at which destinations and facilities are easily reached and accessibly by all members of a community, regardless of age, gender, or physical ability.

Active travel – A physical as opposed to motorised mode of transport such as walking or cycling.

Alzheimer’s – Alzheimer’s is a disease that involves the loss of memory of cognitive abilities due to the gradual and progressive death of brain cells and connections.

Blue space – Areas that are dominated by water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans. 

Body Mass Index (BMI) – A measure used to define underweight, overweight, and obesity. It is calculated by dividing an individual’s wight(kgs) by the square meters of their height.

Built environment – Refers to man-made structures and features that collectively make up neighbourhoods and cities. These structures can include residential and commercial buildings, parks, trials and public transport.

Cognitive health – The ability to clearly think, learn, reason, and remember. 

Cross sectional studies – Studies that examine the relationship between variables of interest (e.g., cognitive health) from a specific population at a single point in time. It is a type of observational study and can determine the presence of associations between multiple variables however it cannot determine the long-term impact of one variable on another.

Dementia – Dementia is characterized by the impairment of multiple brain functions. It commonly involves memory loss, forgetfulness, and loss of judgment, and interferes with daily functioning.

Density – Measures as how much of something is in a specific area. Usually measured as per square mile. In our studies measurements of density can be building density, population density.

Geographic Information System (GIS)A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based system that captures and stores spatial data to use for analysis, allowing researchers to understand spatial patterns and relationships.

Global Positioning System (GPS) – A worldwide navigational system that uses satellites to provides users with a precise location.

Green space – An area of with vegetation or greenery (trees, grass, etc.) such as gardens, parks, or vegetation along streets.

Land use mix – The integration of a range of different types of land uses, such as residential, commercial, recreational, and industrial within a certain area.

Longitudinal studies – Studies that examine the relationship between variables of interest over an extended period of time.

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) – Mild Cognitive Impairment is the early stage of memory loss and cognitive impairment. It is not as severe as Alzheimer’s and dementia.

Obesity and Overweight – Excessive fat accumulation which can be detrimental to health.

Physical activity – Bodily movement that involves energy expenditure and can be incidental (walking for transport) or planned exercise.

Population density – The amount of people living within a certain area. 

Quality of life – A concept that refers to an individual’s perception of their wellbeing and comfort in society which considers physical, mental, social, and emotional factors that can contribute to an individual’s happiness and sense of fulfilment.

Socio-economic status- Refers to the position of a person in society which is based on a combination of factors including education, and income. It often determines an individual’s access to opportunities and resources. 

Street connectivity – Destinations/facilities being connected or interconnected, impacting the ease to travel to destinations.

Residential density – The concentration of housing within an area. 

walkabilityHow favourable a neighbourhood is for walking. Features of the neighbourhood that can create a more walkable environment are high population density, street intersections, and a variety of easy to reach destinations.