EPOCH

The impact of the Environment and Pollution On Cognitive Health

Background

Lively, high compact, that are rich in leisure and business destinations, provide older populations with opportunities to take part in physical, social, and mental activities that improve their cognitive health- that is their ability to think, learn, reason, and remember. However, these type of environments are also linked to harmful amounts of traffic pollution and noise. Studies integrating the effect of the built environments (manmade structures, features, and facilities that provide the setting for where people live and work, e.g., parks, local services) and the side effects produced by these these environments  (pollution, noise etc.), are limited. Most often focus on either how the built environment  promotes physical activity, or the effect of air pollution in single locations. To properly understand how neighborhood factors can affect cognitive health it is important to study all positive and negative influences of the environment across a wide range of locations. EPOCH will combine data on the neighborhood built environment, the natural environment (natural water features, distance to parks, greenness) and pollution (air pollution and noise) from six already existing study groups with existing data to investigate the complex effects of the built environment and pollution on cognition in later life.

Figure 1: Conceptual framework of the effects of the neighbourhood built environment on cognitive health in later life

+ = increase

= decrease

Aims

The aim of this project is to provide a deeper understanding into how built environments can support cognitive health and reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. This project will include a variety of neighbourhood-built environment attributes as well a built environment characteristics (e.g. natural environment and pollution). It will collect data from a large range of geographical locations in Australia and the UK.

Method summary

This project includes several pre-existing studies involving older populations (Table 1).

 

Table 1:  The pre-exisiting studies Australian and UK used within the EPOCH study

 

The total, indirect (effected by other factors), and direct (independent of other factors) effects of environmental factors on cognitive health in later life (Figure 1) will be assessed to determine their beneficial and harmful impacts. This study will look at whether recent environmental factors are associated with cognitive impairment or increased cognitive decline as well as the calmative effect over of exposure of the last 15 years. Looking at calmative exposure will allow us to investigate the direct and indirect effects of environmental factors on cognitive health. Older people who have moved within the last four years will be excluded from the study.

Results from different studies will be integrated using a model that synthesis the data. This will allow us to investigate cross-country variation and the investigation of region-specific effects.

Benefits to society

This study will explore the total, indirect (mediated by other factors), and direct (independent of other factors) effects of the environmental factors on changes in cognitive health. This information is important as it can help identify pathways for prevention that may help lessen the negative effects, and has several policy implications.

For example, as densification (increase in population) is the main driver of other environmental changes (Figure 1) it is important to understand its total (direct plus indirect) impact on cognitive health to inform regulatory urban planning policies.

It is also necessary to estimate the direct and indirect effects of densification on cognitive health to distinguish between its potentially beneficial and harmful effects and identify pathways that lessen the the harmful effects, such as transportation policies that reduce air and noise pollution by limiting motorized traffic in residential areas.

Status / Timeline

The study period for this project is from October 1st 2020 to September 30th 2023.

Key Investigators

• Prof Ester Cerin, ACU (Melbourne, Australia)
• Prof Fiona Matthews (Newcastle Uni, UK)
• Prof Kaarin Anstey, (UNSW)
• Prof Perminder Sachdev (UNSW)
• Dr Suzanne Mavoa (UoM)
• A/Prof Luke Knibs (UQ)
• Prof Bin Jalaludin, UNSW (Sydney, Australia)
• Dr Yu-Tzu Wu (Newcastle Uni, UK)
• Dr Matthew Prina (KCL, UK)
• Dr Benjamin Barratt (ICL, UK)

Associate Investigators and Research Staff 

• Dr Amanda Wheeler (ACU)
• Prof Rachel Franklin (Newcastle Uni, UK),
• Dr Sean Beevers (ICL, UK)
• Prof Takemi Sugiyama (Swinburne Uni)
• Dr Victoria Houlden (Newcastle Uni, UK)
• Dr Yih-Kai Chan (ACU)
• Dr Miguel Alvardo Molina (ACU)
• Ms Nerolie Stickland (ACU)

Funding Source

The EPOCH Research Project is funded by the 2019 UKRI-NHMRC Built Environment Prevention Research Scheme

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